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Apie Vilniaus mečetę ir totorių priemiestį

Nuo Neries pakrantėje esančios A. Goštauto gatvės atsišakojanti nedidelė Mečetės gatvė pažįstama ne kiekvienam vilniečiui. Ko gero, dažną gali nustebinti ir jos pavadinimas. Jokios mečetės ten dabar nėra, bet tai nereiškia, kad jos nebuvo. Dar XX a. vidury čia stūksojo ne tik mečetė su šalimais esančiomis totorių kapinėmis, bet ir senos medinės lūšnos.



Vilniaus totorių mečetė (1830 m. J. Ozięblowskio litografija)

Lukiškių priemiestyje totoriai pradėjo kurtis dar LDK laikais, XIV a. pabaigoje. Vietovė vakariau dabartinės Šv. Apaštalų Pilypo ir Jokūbo bažnyčios anuomet dar vadinta Totorių Lukiškėmis.

Remiantis 1631 m. dokumentais, čia suskaičiuoti 32 šios bendruomenės atstovams priklausantys namai. XX a. pradžios totorių kilmės istoriko Leono Najmano Mirzos Kryczyńskio manymu tada Lukiškėse galėjo gyventi kiek daugiau nei 200 totorių. Žinoma, tai labai apytikslis spėjimas. XIX a. literato Adomas Honorio Kirkoro žodžiais „tarp Vilniaus gyventojų totoriai garsėjo nepriekaištingu dorumu – jokiuose, ypač kriminaliniuose, teismuose niekada nėra buvę totorių bylų“.


Vilniaus totorių mečetė (pirmoji XX a. pusė)
Pasak L. Kryczyńskio, 1655 m., rusų kariuomenei užėmus Vilnių, Lukiškės smarkiai ištuštėjo. Totoriai iš Lukiškių, Rudaminos, Nemežio masiškai bėgo į Lenkiją ar į Kuršą, kiti išvyko į Voluinę ar net Turkiją. Tačiau atsirado ir tokių, kurie šalimais esančioje Šv. Pilypo ir Jokūbo bažnyčioje priėmė katalikybę. Matyt, keisti tikėjimą kai kuriuos jų skatino karjeros siekis ar kartais įsiplieskiantis visuomenės nepakantumas kitatikiams.

Pasak šaltinių, tuometiniai Lukiškių totoriai vertėsi daržovių auginimų, įvairių siuntų bei prekių gabenimų. Skurdžiose, medinėse, aplink mečetę išsidėsčiusiose lūšnose gyveno Bajrulevičiai, Abramovičiai, Aleksandrovičiai, Jakubovskiai, Siunekevičiai, kitos totorių giminės. Beje, senojo Vilniaus ribose, L. Kryczyńskio teigimu, totoriai negyveno iki pat XVIII a. pabaigos. Tad Totorių gatvės pavadinimas kilo ne nuo čia gyvenusių totorių, kaip dažnai yra manoma, o nuo senųjų Totorių vartų. 1777 m. Lietuvos sostinėje (ko gero, turimos omenyje būtent Lukiškės) suskaičiuoti 97 abiejų lyčių totoriai.


Vilniaus mečetė ir totorių kapinės pažymėtos 1935-ųjų miesto plane

1798 m., kai Vilnių jau valdė rusų administracija, miesto galva skundėsi totoriais gubernijos valdžiai, esą jie vengia mokėti miestiečiams nustatytus mokesčius. Į tai totorių atstovai atšaudavo, kad nuo seniausių laikų, remiantis kunigaikščių suteiktomis privilegijomis, jie atleisti nuo bet kokių mokesčių. Kaip baigėsi šis ginčas – nežinia.

Netrukus labiau prasilavinusiems vietos musulmonams leista stoti į valstybės tarnybą bei carinę policiją. Totoriai pradeda po truputį apsigyventi visame Vilniuje.


Nuo A. Goštauto gatvės atsišakojanti Mečetės gatvė šiandien

1802 m. Lietuvos generalgubernatoriaus Leontijaus Beningseno laiške generalprokurorui Aleksandrui Beklešovui minima, kad totorių Lukiškių priemiestyje yra dvidešimt aštuoni.

Ko gero, pirmieji musulmonų maldos namai Totorių Lukiškse galėjo būti pastatyti dar Vytauto Didžiojo laikais, nors tam ir nėra dokumentinių patvirtinimų. Valdant Žygimantui Augustui Vilniuje esančią mečetę mini nežinomas turkų autorius, o kiek vėliau šventyklos aprašymas sutinkamas 1581-ųjų metų laiške vokiečių teologui ir istorikui Davidui Chytraeusui. Nenustatytas siuntėjas teigė, kad „viena mylia nuo Vilniaus, ant Neries kranto, stūkso kaimas (…) Kartu su Jonu Gamratu iš Štralzundo, Vilniaus pirkliu ir miestiečiu, aplankiau jų šventovę. Nėra čia jokio paveikslo, nei jokios dievybės, nei piktos dvasios. Nuogos šventovės sienos, tačiau grindys nuklotos spalvotais kilimais. Į pamaldas susirenkama visuomet penktadienį“.


Mečetės gatvė

1786 m. dailininkas Pranciškus Šmuglevičius lankėsi Lukiškių totorių mečetėje ir pavaizdavo joje besimeldžiančius žmones. 1812 m. spalio mėnesį teismo akte minima, kad kažkoks piktadarys, Jerzy Kuczynskis, įpareigojamas totoriams atlyginti nuostolius už tai, kad išdaužęs Lukiškių mečetės langus pavogė nuo rėmų alavą.


Atminimo lenta: „Šioje vietoje nuo XVI a. buvo Lietuvos totorių maldos namai – mečetė ir kapinės. 1968 m. sovoetmečio valdžios sprendimu mečetė nugriauta, kapinės sunaikintos“.

1830 m. Jozefo Ozięblowskio piešinyje matome, kad medinė mečetė buvo nedidelis, kvadratinio tipo pastatas, jos bokštelyje puikavosi pusmėnulis ir žvaigždė. Prie mečetės nuo seno laidoti vietos totoriai. Tai aprašo ir A. H. Kirkoras: „Toliau, artėjant prie Neries kranto, kiek atokiau nuo totorių namukų prigrūstos gatvės, dešinėje, mažame kiemelyje, arba tiksliau žole apžėlusiose buvusiose totorių kapinaitėse su stūksančiais akmenimis, kuriuose iškalti totoriški įrašai, stovi mažytė, vargana medinė mečetė (…) Penktadieniais, jei būna giedra, ypač gaiviais gegužės rytais, vaikštinėjantys upės krantais gali girdėti skambų pratisą kvietimą, o netrukus – mielą, graudų, romų giedojimą. Tai muedzinas šaukia maldai ir namazui saujelę islamo išpažinėjų“.


Puslaidininkių fizikos instituto kiemelis (dab. A. Goštauto 11). Kadaise čia buvo totorių kapinės.  

XIX a. pabaigoje Lukiškių mečetė perstatyta. Prieš Pirmąjį pasaulinį karą Vilniaus musulmonų bendruomenė surinko 20 tūkst. rublių naujų, mūrinių maldos namų Lukiškėse statybai. Tačiau per istorines negandas visi pinigai pradingo. 1930- aisiais vietos totoriai sveikino į Lukiškes atvykusį Lenkijos prezidentą Ignacy Mościckį.

Po Antrojo pasaulinio karo, Lietuvoje įsitvirtinus sovietų valdžiai, mečetėje įkurtas sandėlys. Pamaldos čia nevyko, sunyko ir vietos totorių bendruomenė. 1969 m. nugriautos mečetės ir su žeme sulygintų senųjų kapinių vietoje iškilo Puslaidininkių fizikos institutas.


Vitalijus Michalovskis
publikuota Lryte ir priede "Sostinė"

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